Advantages and disadvantages of extraction with supercritical CO2

The advantages in using supercritical CO2 are largely of a “health and safety” and environmental nature and relate to increased unease about the presence of organic solvent residues in material for human consumption. However it is also well established in certain applications that the extracts obtained are more acceptable to taste panels than extracts obtained in other ways. This in turn probably relates to the closeness to which the extracted flavour resembles that in the original plant.

Advantages can be summarised as follows:

Many examples of the extraction of aromatic herbs with liquid and with supercritical carbon dioxide are giving by Moyler (1984, 1994), Naik et al. (1989) and Meyer-Warnod (1984). In addition, the table below lists literature references to the extraction of several herbs and spices using liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide.

Tateo and Fellin, 1988
Some published examples of the extraction of flavours using dense CO2
MaterialExtraction ConditionsReference
Origanum vulgare Reverchon
Rosmarinus officinalis30 MPa/35ºC/60 min
30 MPa/45ºC/60 min
10 MPa/40ºCReverchon and Senatore, 1992
Liquid CO2Moyler, 1993
Vanilla10-13 MPa/35-38ºCNguyen et al., 1991
Liquid CO2Moyler, 1993
Coriandrum sativum L. (Fruits)9 MPa/40ºC
5.4 MPa/25ºC
Kerrola and Kallio, 1993
Coriandrum sativum L.5.7 MPa/20ºC
16 Mpa/36,5ºC
Machado et al. 1993
Coriandrum sativum L.12,5 MPa/35ºC
12,5 MPa/45ºC
Lopes Cardoso, 1992
Mentha piperita8-13 MPa/33-37ºC/4 hBarton et al., 1992
Juniperus communisLiquid CO2Moyler, 1993
Ocotea caesia8MPa/40º C/40 minJanete et al.,1994
Vilegas et al.,1994
Piper nigrum L.6.35-7.35 MPa/16-20ºCFerreira et al., 1993
9 MPa/50ºCReverchon et al., 1994
Humulus lupulus L.Liquid CO2Moyler, 1993
Syzygium aromaticum L.Liquid CO2Moyler, 1993
Thymus vulgaris20 MPa/54ºC/30 minHartonen et al., 1992
Liquide CO2Moyler, 1994

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